Ensuring a safe and healthy work environment is a collective responsibility, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) plays a pivotal role in regulating and enforcing workplace safety standards in the United States. Established under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, OSHA's mission is to protect the well-being of employees and ensure their rights to a safe workplace are upheld.

As an employee, you may encounter situations where you believe your workplace falls short of OSHA standards or poses a significant risk to your health and safety. In such instances, it is crucial to know how to file a report with OSHA to address the issue. This step-by-step guide is designed to provide you with a clear and concise understanding of the OSHA reporting process, empowering you to take action when needed.

Who Can File a Report with OSHA?

Eligible Reporters

Employees and their representatives have the right to file a report with OSHA if they believe their workplace is in violation of safety or health standards. This includes:

  • Current employees
  • Former employees
  • Employee representatives (such as union representatives or attorneys)
  • Family members (in cases where the affected employee is deceased or incapacitated)

Confidentiality and Protection from Retaliation

OSHA ensures that the identity of individuals submitting a report remains confidential unless the individual explicitly provides consent for their identity to be disclosed. Furthermore, the law prohibits employers from retaliating against employees who file a report, exercise their rights under the OSH Act, or participate in any OSHA-related activities.

Types of Reports and How to File

Safety and Health Complaints

If you suspect your workplace is violating OSHA standards or poses a significant risk to your health and safety, you can file a safety and health complaint. To do so, follow these steps:

Step 1: Gather Information

Collect information about the hazards or violations in your workplace. Make note of specific incidents, locations, and any attempts you made to address the issue with your employer.

Step 2: Choose the Method of Filing

You can file a complaint with OSHA through the following methods:

Step 3: Fill Out the Complaint Form

Include as much information as possible about the hazards or violations, as well as your contact information. Remember, your identity will remain confidential unless you choose to disclose it.

Step 4: Submit the Complaint

Submit your complaint through your chosen method. OSHA will review the information and determine the appropriate course of action.

Reporting Work-Related Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities

Employers are required to report certain work-related injuries, illnesses, and fatalities to OSHA within a specific timeframe. As an employee, you should report these incidents to your employer, who is then responsible for notifying OSHA. However, if your employer fails to report such incidents, you may file a report directly with OSHA.

To report a work-related injury, illness, or fatality, call your local OSHA office or OSHA's toll-free number at 1-800-321-OSHA (6742). Be prepared to provide details about the incident, including the affected employee's information, the employer's information, and a description of what occurred.

What Happens After Filing a Report?

OSHA's Evaluation and Response

Upon receiving your report, OSHA will evaluate the information to determine the appropriate response. Possible actions include:

  • Opening an inspection: If OSHA decides an inspection is warranted, they will send an inspector to your workplace. The inspection may be announced or unannounced.
  • Sending a letter to your employer: In some cases, OSHA may send a letter to your employer, outlining the alleged hazards and requesting a response with a plan to address the issue.
  • No action: If OSHA determines that the complaint does not warrant further action, they may close the case without additional steps.

Follow-Up and Ongoing Communication

If you have provided your contact information on your complaint, OSHA may reach out to you for additional information or to inform you of the outcome of their evaluation. It is important to maintain open communication with OSHA, as they may require further details or clarification during their investigation.

Inspection Process

If OSHA decides to conduct an inspection, they will send a Compliance Safety and Health Officer (CSHO) to your workplace. The CSHO will:

  • Present their credentials to the employer upon arrival.
  • Conduct an opening conference to discuss the scope of the inspection and the complaint filed.
  • Perform a walkaround inspection to assess the workplace, observe conditions, and potentially interview employees and management.
  • Conduct a closing conference to discuss any potential violations and the next steps.

Citation and Penalties

If OSHA identifies violations during the inspection, they will issue a citation to the employer, detailing the specific violations, the proposed penalties, and the deadline for correcting the hazards. Penalties can include monetary fines, as well as the requirement to implement corrective actions within a specified timeframe.

How to Appeal an OSHA Decision

Employer's Right to Contest

Employers have the right to contest the citation, proposed penalties, or abatement requirements issued by OSHA. To do so, they must file a Notice of Contest within 15 working days of receiving the citation. If the employer contests the citation, OSHA may refer the case to the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC) for a hearing.

Employee's Right to Contest

As an employee or employee representative, you also have the right to contest the abatement period specified in the citation if you believe it is unreasonably long. To contest the abatement period, you must submit a written statement to the OSHA Area Director within 15 working days of the citation's issuance.


Filing a report with OSHA is an essential step in ensuring your workplace is safe and adhering to the required safety and health standards. Understanding the reporting process, your rights as an employee, and the possible outcomes of a report will empower you to take action when necessary. By working together with OSHA, employees and employers can create a safer and healthier work environment for everyone.